ALUMINIUM ALLOY

ALUMINIUM ALLOY

An aluminum alloy is a chemical composition where other elements are added to pure aluminum in order to enhance its properties, primarily to increase its strength. These other elements include iron, silicon, copper, magnesium, manganese and zinc at levels that combined may make up as much as 15 per cent of the alloy by weight. Alloying requires the thorough mixing of aluminium with these other elements while the aluminium is in molten – liquid – form.

Alloys are assigned a four-digit number, in which the first digit identifies a general class, or series, characterized by its main alloying elements

 

1xxx Series

The 1xxx series alloys are comprised of aluminium 99 per cent or higher purity.  This series has excellent corrosion resistance, excellent workability, as well as high thermal and electrical conductivity.  This is why the 1xxx series is commonly used for transmission, or power grid, lines that connect the national grids across the United States.  Common alloy designations in this series are 1350, for electrical applications, and 1100, for food packaging trays.

  

2xxx Series

In the 2xxx series, copper is used as the principle alloying element and can be strengthened significantly through solution heat-treating.  These alloys possess a good combination of high strength and toughness, but do not have the levels of atmospheric corrosion resistance as many other aluminium alloys.  Therefore, these alloys are usually painted or clad for such exposures.  They’re generally clad with a high-purity alloy or a 6xxx series alloy to greatly resist corrosion. Alloy 2024 perhaps the most widely known aircraft alloy.

 

3xxx Series

Manganese is the major alloying element in this series, often with smaller amounts of magnesium added.  However, only a limited percentage of manganese can be effectively added to aluminium. 3003 is a popular alloy for general purpose because it has moderate strength and good workability and may be used in applications such as heat exchangers and cooking utensils.  Alloy 3004 and its modifications are used in the bodies of aluminum beverage cans.

 

4xxx Series

4xxx series alloys are combined with silicon, which can be added in sufficient quantities to lower the melting point of aluminium, without producing brittleness. Because of this, the 4xxx series produces excellent welding wire and brazing alloys where a lower melting point is required.  Alloy 4043 is one of the most widely used filler alloys for welding 6xxx series alloys for structural and automotive applications.

 

5xxx Series

Magnesium is the primary alloying agent in the 5xxx series and is one of the most effective and widely used alloying elements for aluminium.  Alloys in this series possess moderate to high strength characteristics, as well as good weldablility and resistance to corrosion in the marine environment. Because of this, aluminium-magnesium alloys are widely used in building and construction, storage tanks, pressure vessels and marine applications.  Examples of common alloy applications include: 5052 in electronics, 5083 in marine applications, anodized 5005 sheet for architectural applications and 5182 makes the aluminium beverage can lid.  The U.S. military’s Bradley Fighting Vehicle is made with 5083 and the 7xxx series aluminium.

 

6xxx Series

The 6xxx series are versatile, heat treatable, highly formable, weldable and have moderately high strength coupled with excellent corrosion resistance.  Alloys in this series contain silicon and magnesium in order to form magnesium silicide within the alloy.  Extrusion products from the 6xxx series are the first choice for architectural and structural applications.  Alloy 6061 is the most widely used alloy in this series and is often used in truck and marine frames.  Additionally, the iPhone 6 extrusion was made from 6xxx series alloy.

 

7xxx Series

Zinc is the primary alloying agent for this series, and when magnesium is added in a smaller amount, the result is a heat-treatable, very high strength alloy.  Other elements such as copper and chromium may also be added in small quantities.  The most commonly known alloys are 7050 and 7075, which are widely used in the aircraft industry.

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